HMGB1 is a nuclear protein, an important cytokine for innate immunity, and a core mediator in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Serum HMGB1 can be used as a biomarker and therapeutic target for a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Creative BioMart Biomarker is capable to provide our customers with superior HMGB1 detection service, various detection methods ensuring high sensitivity for detecting biomarkers in different samples with different concentrations.
High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that is passively released by necrotic cells, and actively released by macrophages/monocytes in response to exogenous and endogenous inflammatory stimuli. Upon binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) or toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), HMGB1 activates vascular endothelial cells and macrophages/monocytes to express pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. As an important cytokine of innate immunity, HMGB1 is the core mediator in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. HMGB1 is involved in the formation of atherosclerotic lesions, in human autopsy samples and animal experimental tissues of atherosclerotic lesions, HMGB1 is highly expressed in different cell types, such as smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, foam cells, macrophages and activated platelets. Clinical data demonstrate that HMGB1 acts as a biomarker and therapeutic target in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Serum HMGB1 levels were significantly elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI). As an inflammatory mediator, extracellular HMGB1 can participate in cardiac remodeling after MI. The increase of early serum HMGB1 is mainly caused by passive release of necrotic myocytes, thereby amplifying the tissue damage caused by ischemia. However, the local elevation of HMGB1 is mainly due to the active release of infiltrating inflammatory cells, which plays a role in late-phase mediators in the long-term inflammatory process and further aggravates pathological damage. Studies have shown that HMGB1 may play an important role in proper healing processes and in maintaining the structural integrity of the infarcted left ventricle (LV). The beneficial effects of HMGB1 are mediated by the proliferation and differentiation of cardiac c-kit stem cells and the enhancement of angiogenesis and myocardial fibrosis. In response to ischemic angiogenesis, HMGB1 stimulates homing of endothelial progenitor cells to ischemic tissue and migration of endothelial cells, sprouting and neovascularization. HMGB1 may act as a double-edged sword in the post-MI inflammatory response, which has a dual effect on LV remodeling depending on the site, extent and timing of HMGB1 regulation.
Figure 1. HMGB1 displays dual effects after Myocardial Ischemia. (Cai, J. 2015)
Serum levels of HMGB1, can be used as a biomarker and therapeutic target for a variety of cardiovascular diseases.
Creative BioMart Biomarker strictly controls each specific experimental step in the HMGB1 detection procedure to ensure high sensitivity, high accuracy and repeatable HMGB1 detection.
Please feel free to contact us if you would like to know more about HMGB1 detection. At Creative BioMart Biomarker, we not only provide high-quality HMGB1 detection service, but also provide detection services for other biomarkers. Additionally, our experts can also provide and help design the best solution according to your specific requirements.