High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In addition, HMGB1 is also a bone-active cytokine that is released from necrotic osteocytes and participates in bone remodeling, and plays a role in bone formation within cartilage. HMGB1 is associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA), so it can be served as an important biomarker for these two diseases. Creative BioMart Biomarker offers high quality detection service for HMGB1, ensuring high detection accuracy, sensitivity and efficiency for each sample.
HMGB1 is a 30kDa non-histone nucleoprotein with two DNA binding cassettes. As a highly conserved protein, it has important functions in vivo. HMGB1 is a structural chromatin-binding factor that plays a role in the maintenance of nucleosome structure and the regulation of gene transcription. Within the cells, HMGB1 acts as a structural chromatin-binding factor secreted and released by innate immune cells, damaged cells or virus-infected cells. When secreted extracellularly, HMGB1 can interact with cell-surface receptors (e.g. TLR-2, -4 and RAGE), cytokines and chemokines to stimulate the innate immune system and lead to the occurrence of inflammatory reactions. Therefore, HMGB1 is associated with a variety of chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases, such as sepsis, RA, atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). For this reason, HMGB1 may be a potential biomarker in the pathogenesis research of RA. HMGB1 interacts with RAGE, activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and/or nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway, and induces chondrocytes to produce matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), inflammatory mediators and nitric oxide (NO). At the same time, HMGB1 interacts with TLR2 and TLR4 to promote hypertrophy of chondrocytes, which also leads to the release of HMGB1 and acts as a chemical attractant for osteoclasts and osteoblasts, promoting mineralization of the cartilage-bone interface and bone formation in the cartilage. Therefore, HMGB1 plays an important role in bone remodeling as a bone-active cytokine. In addition, HMGB1 can interact with other pro-inflammatory factors, such as IL-1α, IL-1β, to play a role in OA. HMGB1 is highly expressed in the synovial fluid, synovium, and cartilage of OA patients, and is positively correlated with the severity of OA. Therefore, HMGB1 can also be used as an important biomarker in the disease pathogenesis research and clinical treatment research of OA.
Figure 1. Role of HMGB1 in osteoarthritis (Nefla, et al. 2016)
Creative BioMart Biomarker strictly controls each specific experimental step in the HMGB1 detection procedure to ensure accurately quantify the level of HMGB1 in each sample.
At Creative BioMart Biomarker, we offer HMGB1 detection service that includes several technical methods, you can communicate with our experts according to your research needs, and we will determine the final detection technological scheme based on the communication results. Please feel free to contact us, Creative BioMart Biomarker is here to offer you professional and thoughtful service.