Haptoglobin (Hp) is an acute phase protein with increased expression level during infection, inflammation and injury, and can bind to free hemoglobin. Hp is a potential biomarker and has research value in inflammation, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. As an expert in the field of biomarker services, Creative BioMart Biomarker provides researchers with sensitive Hp testing services. Faster testing services can effectively help customers accelerate the research process.
Hp is a kind of α-2-glycoprotein which is mainly synthesized by hepatocytes and released into the blood. it is formed by the connection of α and β subunits through disulfide bonds. Although Hp is mainly produced in the liver, Hp protein and mRNA can be detected in the lung, kidney, spleen, thymus and heart. Hp has three phenotypes with different molecular weight, binding strength, anti-oxidative ability, and the clearance rate, namely Hp1-1, Hp2-1, and Hp-2-2. Among them, Hp1-1 has the greatest binding strength, and the complex of Hp2-2 and hemoglobin has a stronger affinity for the CD163 receptor. Hp is an acute phase protein, which generally increases under inflammatory conditions, and its concentration will decrease and may return to normal after the end of inflammation. Hp will be increased by the influence of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 and IL-6. The α chain of Hp can bind to free hemoglobin and transport it to the liver through the blood for degradation. Free hemoglobin can remove nitric oxide, which is an important regulator of endothelial adhesion molecule expression, platelet activation and aggregation. In addition, free hemoglobin can interact with and destroy lipid membranes and other lipophilic structures. Therefore, the irreversible combination of Hp and hemoglobin can remove free hemoglobin and prevent inflammation and oxidative tissue damage induced by it. Hp also has the functions of inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation and B cell mitosis, regulating macrophages, and promoting the growth of new blood vessels.
Figure 1. The metabolism of hemoglobin‐haptoglobin complexes (Hb‐Hp). (Shih, et al. 2013)
Haptoglobin levels can be used as biomarkers in researches related to Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, etc.
At Creative BioMart Biomarker, we offer high-quality haptoglobin detection service that ensuring the sensitivity and specificity of test results. You can also talk to our experts according to your certain requirement, and we will determine the final detection scheme based on the communication results. Please feel free to contact us, Creative BioMart Biomarker is here to offer you professional and thoughtful service.