Folate has the function of maintaining normal development and growth. Abnormal folate status is associated with megaloblastic anemia, cardiovascular disease, cancer and cognitive disorders. Therefore, folate detection is of great significance for disease research and mechanism researches. Creative BioMart Biomarker offers high quality detection service for folate, ensuring high detection accuracy, sensitivity and efficiency for each sample.
Folate is a vitamin B found in most vegetables. The chemical structure of folate family includes a p-aminobenzoic acid, a pteridine ring, and at least one γ-linked glutamate residue. Folic acid is the oxidized monoglutamate form of folate that is generally not naturally occurring. Folate in food is generally exist in the form of polyglutamate, which is hydrolyzed to monoglutamate form by glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) prior to absorption and then transferred into the cell. Folate can be transported into the cell via three different proteins, including the reduced folate carrier (RFC), the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT), and the folate receptor (FR). RFC is the major transporter of folate, which carries folate into the cytoplasm through a bidirectional anion-exchange mechanism. PCFT is mainly involved in folate transport in the intestine. When folate binds to FR, the cell membrane invaginates to form vesicles, which are subsequently acidified, resulting in the separation of folate from the FR, and the folate is finally released from the intact vesicles. High transmembrane organic phosphate gradients and transmembrane proton (H+) gradients were utilized in the uphill folate transport of RFC and PCFT, respectively. The RFC-mediated folate transport is optimal at a pH of 7.4, while the transport process involving FR and PCFT is optimal at low pH. Folate is essential for the normal function of cells because it not only function as a coenzyme to participate in one-carbon metabolism, but also involves in the methylation of DNA, RNA, proteins, and phospholipids. The transfer of one-carbon units is required in purine and pyrimidine synthesis, as well as DNA and RNA synthesis. Therefore, poor folate status may lead to the abnormalities of certain protein synthesis, DNA synthesis and gene expression, which ultimately lead to the occurrence of some diseases. Folate deficiency is caused by a variety of factors, such as inadequate diet, malabsorption, and increased demand for folate. The typical symptom of folate deficiency is megaloblastic anemia. Moreover, folate is associated with an increased risk of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and cognitive dysfunction.
Figure 1. Folate can be transported into the cell by three different proteins (Vergote, et al. 2015)
Creative BioMart Biomarker strictly controls each specific experimental step in the folate detection procedure to ensure accurately quantify the level of folate in each sample.
At Creative BioMart Biomarker, we offer folate detection service which includes several technical methods, you can communicate with our experts according to your research needs, and we will determine the final detection technological scheme based on the communication results. Please feel free to contact us, Creative BioMart Biomarker is here to offer you professional and thoughtful service.