Complement component 4 (C4), like complement component 3 (C3), is not only a relatively abundant molecule in complement protein, but also a kind of complement protein which has been studied widely. C4 is abnormally expressed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), glomerulonephritis and other diseases, and may be used as a biomarker for disease diagnosis and monitoring. Creative BioMart Biomarker has many years of experience in biomarker testing and can provide customers with accurate and reliable C4 detection services. High-quality services, short turnaround time and reasonable prices can effectively help customers shorten the research cycle and reduce research costs.
C4 participates in the activation pathway of complement system and plays a key role in it. The complement system is a part of the human immune system and a defense system against microbial invaders. The complement system involves dozens of components, including pattern-recognition molecules (PRM), proteases, protein components, regulators and cell surface receptors. When faced with foreign invaders, the combination of PRM and molecular surface patterns can trigger different initiation pathways. The activation pathway of complement system includes the classical pathway (CP), the lectin pathway (LP) and the alternative pathway (AP). The binding of recognition molecule C1q to the antibody complex on the pathogen surface promotes the initiation of CP, which leads to the cleavage of C4 into C4a and C4b, in which C4b surface exposes unique thionolactone ring structure so that C4b can covalently bind to the pathogen surface. Then C2 cleaves to form C2a and C2b.C2a combines with C4b to form C3 convertase C4bC2a. In LP, MASP-1 automatically activates and triggers MASP-2 activation, leading to the cleavage of C4 and C2, which in turn promotes the assembly of C4bC2a and the cleavage of C3, and finally causes further cleavage and activation events. Complement participates in many diseases. Complement deficiency and excessive complement activation are related to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. In the process of inflammation, the expression level of C4 may change, so it can be used as a biomarker in the research of some related diseases to assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases.
Figure 1. The three pathways of complement activation (Beltrame, et al. 2014)
C4 levels can be used as biomarkers in researches related to glomerulonephritis, SLE, etc.
Creative BioMart Biomarker strictly controls each specific experimental step in the detection procedure to ensure accurately quantify the level of C4 in each sample.
At Creative BioMart Biomarker, we offer high-quality C4 detection service that ensuring the sensitivity and specificity of test results. You can also talk to our experts according to your certain requirement, and we will determine the final detection scheme based on the communication results. Please feel free to contact us, Creative BioMart Biomarker is here to offer you professional and thoughtful service.