Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is one of the participants for the electron transport chain and aerobic respiration in mitochondria of eukaryotic cells, it is associated with many diseases with increased oxidative stress, such as Alzheimer’s disease, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Creative BioMart Biomarker offers high quality detection service for CoQ, ensuring high detection accuracy, sensitivity and efficiency for each sample.
CoQ, which is also known as ubiquinone (UQ), is a redox-active lipophilic molecule found in almost all eukaryotic cells. The chemical structure of CoQ contains a quinone ring and a very long polyisoprenoid side chain that makes CoQ a highly hydrophobic molecule. The lipid tail of CoQ is species-specific, in which humans primarily produce CoQ10 and mice produce CoQ9, the subscript in this abbreviation specifically refers to the number of isoprene subunits in its lipid tail. The biosynthesis pathway of CoQ is very complicated. The precursor of the quinone ring is 4-hydroxybenzoate, which is formed by tyrosine through a series of reactions, while the polyisoprenoid side chain is synthesized by the mevalonate pathway. In eukaryotes, the final step of CoQ biosynthesis occurs in mitochondria, a suitable length of polyisoprenoid chain is synthesized by Coq1p, which is then condensed to a benzoquinone ring due to the function of Coq2p. Subsequently, Coq3p, Coq5p, Coq6p and Coq7p participate in methylation, decarboxylation and hydroxylation reactions, while Yah1p and Arh1p provide electrons for Coq6p activity. CoQ is involved in many important cellular pathways, such as the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In this pathway, electrons are shuttled from NADH and succinate to CoQ. CoQ is an important cofactor for uncoupling proteins and multiple mitochondrial dehydrogenases, in which dihydroorotate dehydrogenase is involved in pyrimidine biosynthesis, and electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase takes part in beta-oxidation of fatty acids. In addition, CoQ has its specific extramitochondrial function, for example, it also functions as an antioxidant and a membrane stabilizer. CoQ has a critical impact on health and disease, CoQ deficiency affects multiple organs that require high levels of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, including the brain, heart, kidney, and skeletal muscles. Therefore, CoQ deficiency is related to diseases such as encephalopathy, cerebellar ataxia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, nephrotic syndrome, and myopathy.
Figure 1. Functions of ubiquinone in the mitochondrial respiratory chain (Wang, et al. 2016)
Creative BioMart Biomarker strictly controls each specific experimental step in the coenzyme Q detection procedure to ensure accurately quantify the level of coenzyme Q in each sample.
At Creative BioMart Biomarker, we offer coenzyme Q detection service which includes several technical methods, you can communicate with our experts according to your research needs, and we will determine the final detection technological scheme based on the communication results. Please feel free to contact us, Creative BioMart Biomarker is here to offer you professional and thoughtful service.