Calcium is the most abundant mineral and the fifth-abundant element in the human body, which plays a key role in bone formation in the form of calcium ions or compounds. As calcium takes critical place in bone formation, the disequilibrium of calcium homeostasis is closely related to bone diseases such as osteoporosis and osteomalacia. Creative BioMart Biomarker offers high quality detection service for calcium in each sample.
The average store of calcium for the adult human body is about 1 to 2 kilograms, and more than 99% of that exists in bone and teeth. Calcium presents in bone in the form of calcium-phosphate complexes, of which hydroxyapatite is the primary compound. The function of calcium in bone is to provide skeletal strength and as a dynamic store for intra calcium and extracellular calcium. In addition, calcium is also considered as an important regulator for bone remodeling. Calcium ion stimulates the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and then action on osteoblast precursors to proceed it proliferate and differentiate to preosteoblasts. The mature form of preosteoblasts is osteoblasts, which can secrete osteoid to promote bone mineralization and bone formation finally. In healthy adults, bone formation is coupled with bone resorption, the action of bone formation is balanced with the action of bone resorption, in this way, bone remodeling rate is maintained within a range, and if it is too high it means an increased risk of bone fragility and fracture. The calcium balance is also tightly controlled, and diseases that affect bone formation or bone resorption will disturb the homeostasis of calcium, in addition, calcium is the main component of bone and plays an important role in bone mineralization, so calcium is served as a biomarker of bone formation. Detection of calcium in serum can monitor and diagnose hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia. The body usually controls serum and intracellular calcium levels through bone resorption and urinary excretion. When calcium levels are high, excess calcium is either stored in the bone or excreted through urine or feces. Urinary calcium is usually determined by dietary and intestinal absorption capacity, it can be used to assess calcium intake in the diet and the ability of the intestine to absorb calcium. In addition, due to the correlation between urinary calcium levels and bone formation, urinary calcium can also be used to detect bone calcium loss. Calcium in urine can be used to identify hypercalciuria and hypocalciuria, as well as to diagnose nephrolithiasis.
Figure 1. Model of CaSR action in bone formation and resorption (Goltzman, et al. 2015)
Creative BioMart Biomarker strictly controls each specific experimental step in the calcium detection procedure to ensure accurately quantify the level of calcium in each sample.
At Creative BioMart Biomarker, we offer calcium detection service that includes a variety of technical methods, you can communicate with our experts according to your research needs, and we will determine the final detection technological scheme based on the communication results. Please feel free to contact us, Creative BioMart Biomarker is here to offer you professional and thoughtful service.