Bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) is closely related to bone formation and some bone diseases according to research reports. BAP refers to an isoform of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), although liver tissue-nonspecific isozyme of ALP (TNALP) and BAP constitute approximately 95% of total ALP activity, the increases or decreases of ALP cannot represent the status of BAP, therefore accurate measurement of BAP is essential for bone formation research. Creative BioMart Biomarker offers high quality detection service for BAP specially, we are able to accurately measure and analyze the level of BAP isoforms in each sample.
BAP is a homodimeric glycoprotein which has four different isoforms, B/I, B1, B2 and B1x. Among them, B/I is not pure BAP isoform and B1x is a biomarker for low bone turnover. BAP function as an ectoenzyme, and it can anchor to the membrane of bone cells under the action of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), during this phase osteoblast which has a close relationship with bone formation is anchored by BAP. In mineralization process, proteins such as RUNX2, MSX2 and SOX9 stimulate the expression of BAP, and then processes post-translationally N-linked and O-linked glycosylation modification in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus, resulting in multiple subtypes of BAP (B/I, B1x, B1, and B2). These BAP subtypes are transported to the cell membrane, attached to the extracellular surface, and exist as an ectoenzyme. In mineralized cells, a large number of BAP isoforms are transported to specific parts of the cell membrane, and they are released at this position to form matrix vesicles that contain a large number of membrane-bound BAP isoforms and sortilin. BAP inactivates the mineralization inhibitor inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and osteopontin by dephosphorylation to produce a pro-calcified cell environment. At the same time, BAP also directly binds to type I collagen to form a scaffold that facilitates mineralization, so BAP can be considered as a biomarker of bone formation. BAP detection reflects bone formation and metabolic status of osteoblasts, which determines its indicator role in some bone disease, thus the detection of BAP in serum has been widely used in routine diagnosis, and it also plays a critical role in bone research.
Figure 1. Role of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) in tissue mineralization (Haarhaus, et al. 2017)
Creative BioMart Biomarker strictly controls each specific experimental step in the BAP detection procedure to ensure accurately quantify the level of four BAP isoforms (B/I, B1, B2 and B1x) in each sample.
At Creative BioMart Biomarker, we offer BAP detection service that includes a variety of technical methods, you can communicate with our experts according to your research needs, and we will determine the final detection technological scheme based on the communication results. Please feel free to contact us, Creative BioMart Biomarker is here to offer you professional and thoughtful service.